Cataract (poor) from birth

definition:
Cataract (poor) is a visual impairment, in which the lens of the eye is cloudy, while in normal condition it is transparent and won.
The lens is located behind the iris, and its job is to focus the light rays on the retina.
The retina is an inner layer located at the back of the eye, and is responsible for absorbing light.
In the normal eye, the cornea and lens focus the light rays that enter the eye through the pupil on the retina.
In a lens with a cataract there is a blockage of light rays and as a result the retina does not absorb light or figures clearly.
Congenital cataracts are usually not progressive (deteriorating), but there are cases where in the early stages the cataract will appear on only a small part of the lens (and will not affect the quality of vision), however, after a while, the cataract may grow, and a larger part of the lens is removed. On sight.
The cataract can appear in one eye or in both eyes together, but it does not pass from eye to eye.
Symptoms :

  • Blurred vision.
  • Glare from strong, apricot light, and light reflected from a smooth surface: The observer sees an aura around the lau
  • May cause strabismus – the eye "turns" because it can not focus properly.
  • Occasionally, when light is irradiated or the baby is photographed, there is a white return in the pupil instead of the usual black or red

Types of early childhood cataracts:

  • Congenital cataract : Some babies are born with a cataract or develop it from an early age.
  • Traumatic cataract : A cataract that can develop after an eye injury.
    Secondary cataract: A turbidity that develops after cataract surgery, in fact it is not a cataract, but rather, a turbidity of a membrane left during the operation.

Causes of congenital cataracts:
Any disturbance in the normal structure of the lens can lead to turbidity. This can be caused by a genetic disorder or various disorders during pregnancy. Metabolic diseases or trauma of the mother or fetus can also cause cataracts in a baby.
The effects of congenital cataracts
In a baby born with cataracts, there is a lack of stimulation of the undeveloped visual system. Lack of these stimuli stops the normative development of vision. If the cataract is not treated properly, it may later develop strabismus, lazy eye, and nystagmus (in case the cataract appears in both eyes). Without sufficient stimulation at the critical time that is the first years of a child's life, central vision may be permanently impaired, with some peripheral vision remaining and for the most part vision remaining very impaired.
When there is cataract in only one eye, the child's brain will make a good connection to the healthy eye and only rarely will the damaged eye reach optimal vision. When there is a cataract in both eyes, it is possible that in one eye the cataract will be thicker / denser. If the image in one eye is less blurred compared to the other, then that eye will develop a preferred vision, with further suppression of the development of vision in the other eye. In many cases where there is a cataract in both eyes, the vision will eventually reach a relatively good level, with appropriate treatment and if no complications develop.
Treatment – Cataract surgery
Children born with cataracts are operated on as close to birth as possible: the opaque lens is removed, and most of the time the patient then experiences mild pain, or no pain at all. In order to bring the child's vision after the surgery to the maximum, he must wear glasses that are suitable for his vision, or contact lenses. As he grows older, it will be possible to perform a lens implant. Without the use of postoperative vision aids, vision may remain poor, and there may be no possibility of spontaneous vision improvement.

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