Sensory awareness is the foundation for the absorption and understanding of our world. Proper vision allows the child to absorb and understand with a glance, where he is in relation to space, to efficiently and quickly scan the near and far environment to see the destination point and plan the route to it. In a child with normal vision, the information is automatically absorbed, with a glance, without special effort.
A child with impaired vision or blindness is limited in his ability to receive visual information from the environment, due to the decrease in visual acuity and/or field of vision he has difficulty effectively scanning the space to locate figures or objects and rec
eive all the visual information he needs, in order to understand the situation and move freely and safely in the space. The perception of the body first includes the familiarity of the different parts of the body, Understanding the functional capacity of the body's organs and later also recognizing the relationship betw
een the two sides of the body and the boundaries of the body.Children with visual impairment and blindness in early childhood tend to follow their motor development, motor delay is expressed
to varying degrees, depending on the severity of the visual impairment.Since the body's schema is built from the moment the baby is born, the children of THEA must be exposed at all levels of motor activity. In children with complete blindness, there are also difficulties in motor development such as jumping, running, and complex and cognitive motor tasks.
Why are visually impaired children late in motor development?
- There is little curiosity about the immediate and distant environment, which they are unaware of due to the visual impairment.
- Fear and anxiety around her from the unknown, from the investigation of the environment and the risk of movement in an uncertain space.
- The tendency of those around them to over-protect and prevent children's motor independence.
- Experience and poor exposure to the space in which they operate.
- Need to listen intensively to the environment
Absence or avoidance of motor activity and movement can lead to acquired passivity on the part of the toddler, limited acquisition of skills and lack of motivation from physical activity. The meaquale volume of movement causes muscle weakness, poor posture and sometimes obesity. In the long run we can expect pain in the joints and organs that are physically inactive.
Motor activation for elia children is necessary, in order to expose them to their abilities without fear, to teach them to plan their steps in space independently, to enjoy a movement that is so necessary for normal emotional development, to strengthen the strength of their muscle, to teach them to be aware of their posture, to dare to move through space, to discover the world and to be independent.
Since the body's consent is built from experiences from the moment the baby is born, all daycare children must be exposed at all levels of functioning. Improving mobility and orientation skills does not depend solely on the child's ability to walk or crawl, does not depend solely on the ability of language, communication or cognitive. In other words, the rehabilitation work on orientation and mobility takes place in all kindergarten classes in the 1970s, when each child will receive treatment tailored to the stage in which he is located and according to his needs.
Orientation and Mobility – O&M
The ability to move through space safely and efficiently. To know how to get by in space and control it.
The ability to know where the different items in the space are, where I am in relation to them and understanding the spatial relationship for the purpose of planning an effective route , using signs and towards a goal.
This means the ability to use the senses to understand the location of the person in the environment at any given moment.
e ability to move from place to place or from state to state.
Possible types of mobility: rolling, crawling, walking and using accessories if necessary.
What's a bounty about orientation and mobility?
- Visual impairment
- Child's Personal Abilities: Cognition, Temperament, Motivation
- Environment: Environment adjustment, different functioning in different environments, familiar/new, stimuli load
- Security in the environment
- Learning a technique for orientation and mobility in space and practicing skills.
Elia operates an orientation and mobility program with the aim of developing techniques and skills for orientation in space and mobility, so that a child with visual impairment or blindness can move safely and safely in different environments according to his needs and abilities.
The program is based on the "circle model developed by Irit Toral when she worked as a physiotherapist in THEA. The model was developed based on the knowledge and experience accumulated over the years in THEA, as well as research and literature from Israel and around the world. A physiotherapist municipality, Neuer-Developed worked at the RIA for 29 years in the RIA, initiated and promoted rehabilitation therapy in orientation and mobility individually and in groups, was a clinical instructor for a young physiotherapist team and also took part in parent and infant groups over the years.
Toral Municipality Circular Model
The beginning of the program is in an assessment developed in the ALIA that includes 5 developmental stages ranging from the immediate environment and the boundaries of the body to a distant environment. The program makes it possible to evaluate the child's abilities and progress in relation to himself and to formulate therapeutic goals that guide the therapeutic and educational staff in the rehabilitation work. The program includes:
- Learning concepts: body concepts, directions, prepositions, dimensions and distances, concepts of space and environment (door, room, floor, courtyard, road, intersection..)
- Development of sensory skills: hearing, smell, perception of movement, tactility, feeling of time and distance , feeling of face .
- Understanding the language of mobility: terms like starting point, sign, hint.
- Orientation and mobility in the immediate vicinity and in a new environment: learning anchors, fixed pathways, self-exploration techniques, beginning brain (mental) mapping of space/space.
- First acquaintance with white stick and stick
The activity is conducted under the guidance of physiotherapists individually or grouply.