Cataracts (poor) are visually impaired, in which the lens of the eye is murky, while in normal condition it is transparent and won.
The lens is located behind the iris, and its function is to focus the rays of light on the retina.
The retina is an inner layer located at the back of the eye, and is responsible for absorbing light.
In a normal eye, the cornea and lens focus the rays of light entering the eye through the pupil on the retina.
In a lens with cataracts there is a blockage of the rays of light and as a result the retina does not absorb light or figures clearly.
Usually congenital cataracts are not progressive (deteriorating), but there are cases that in the early stages the cataract will appear only on a small part of the lens (and will not affect the quality of vision), however, after a while, the cataract may grow, and a larger part of the lens is displaced, making vision more difficult.
Cataracts can appear in one or both eyes together, but it does not pass from eye to eye.
- Blurred vision.
- Blinding from strong light, apricot, and light reflected from a smooth surface: the beholder sees an aura around the light
- May cause sedi veil – the eye "rotates" because it cannot focus correctly.
- Sometimes, when you project light into the eye or take pictures of the baby, there is a white return in the pupil in the usual black or red place
Types of cataracts in early childhood:
- Congenital cataracts: Some babies are born with cataracts or develop it from an early age.
- Traumatic cataracts: cataracts that may develop after an eye injury.
Secondary cataracts: a thickening that develops after cataract surgery, in fact it is not cataracts, but rather, the mumbrane of a membrane that they left at the time of surgery.
Causes of congenital cataracts:
Any interference with the normal structure of the lens can lead to musings. This can be caused by a genetic disorder or various disorders during pregnancy. Metabolic diseases or trauma of the mother or fetus can also cause cataracts in a baby.
Effects of innate cataracts
In the baby born with cataracts, there is a lack of irritation in the visual system that is not yet developed. A lack of these stimuli stops the normative development of vision. If the cataract is not treated properly, it is possible that later on a strabismus, a lazy eye, and a nistagasmus (in case the cataract appears in both eyes). Without sufficient stimulation at the critical time that is the child's first years of life, the central vision may be permanently impaired, with some peripheral vision remaining and usually the vision remaining very impaired.
When there is cataracts in only one eye, the child's brain will tie a good connection to the healthy eye and rarely will the affected eye reach optimal vision. When there is cataracts in both eyes, it is possible that in one eye the cataract will be thicker /denser. If the picture in one eye is less blurred compared to the other, then this eye will develop favorable vision, with further suppression of the development of vision in the other eye. In many cases where there is cataracts in both eyes, vision will eventually reach a relatively good level, with appropriate treatment and if complications do not develop.
Treatment – Cataract surgery
Children born with cataracts are analyzed near birth as much as possible: the murky lens is removed, and usually the surgeon then feels minor pain, or feels no pain at all. In order to bring the child's vision after surgery to maximum utilization, he must wear glasses adapted to his vision, or contact lenses. As he matures, a lens transplant can be performed. Without the use of visual aids after surgery, vision may remain poor, and spontaneous vision function will not be possible.