Written by: Prof. Kent Kazlo, Professional Director of the Elia Association, Developmental Optometrist.
Global Background
Adrenals is a hereditary congenital disease, characterized by a complete or partial lack of pigment (a colored substance called melanin) that appears in the skin, hair and eyes. There are two main types of whiteness; Ocular abinism (absence of pigment only in the eye) and general lavender (throughout the body). Associated effects of labinism are hypersensitivity to light, nistagmus (jigging of the eyes) and sometimes a lazy eye. If whiteness is general, there is a higher risk of skin cancer and sunburn. It should be noted that with the exception of vision and sun exposure, whiteness has no other effects and does not impair physical or cognitive development.
Visual impact
The development
of the visual system during the embryonic period depends heavily on melanin material that is essential for the development of the retina and the iritical. The retina is located on the inside of the eye, composed of cells (receptors) and nerve fibers- their function is to absorb the rays of light and transmit an electrical message to the brain. The iris lyses the amount of incoming light and contributes to visual acuity. A lack of melanin leads to damage to the development of the retina and iritically normally and therefore there is a decrease in the quality of vision.
Possible effects of melanin deficiency:

  • Hypersensitivity to light (photophobia) decreased visual acuity due to the dispersion of light in the eye.
  • Decreased visual acuity (blurring) due to irresema in the development of the center of clear vision in the eye – the phobia.
  • Nistagmus (eye jigging) also contributes to a decrease in visual acuity.
  • A decrease in communication between the eye and the brain due to a change in the organization of optic nerve fibers on its way from the eye to the brain and therefore a change in the message that the brain receives from the eyes.
  • Sub-development of the optic nerve head inside the eye.

General albinism (OCA) is usually hereditaryly transmitted from both parents, meaning parents are not albinos themselves but carriers of the gene for the disease. Ocular abinism (OC) is also heredity- more common among men than women. There are other types of abinism but they are rarer.
Coping and handling

  • Inso far, sun protection measures are used to preserve the skin of the body and the poor.
  • It is important to use sunglasses/ dark glasses for the purpose of keeping the eye and preventing dazzle.
  • Choosing a proper place to sit in the garden to prevent blinding and utilization of vision optimally.
  • Encouraging eye contact with the environment since this connection is influenced by the decrease in visual adinity and the ability to direct the gaze.
  • The use of contrast (contrast) in colors since, together with the decrease in visual adhering, there is also a decrease in sensitivity to contrast.
  • Developing and encouraging vision skills while addressing the characteristics of the nistagmus (the hunt). Tracking objects in motion, finding the right position in favor of the "zero point", the head position and the angle of view in which the hunting in the eyes decreases, providing time in identification and decoding, and more…

For more information and how to treat early childhood children with albinism and ways of working with children with visual impairment or blindness, enter the professional articles and manuals on the Elia-NGO website for the advancement of children with visual impairment or blindness.

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